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  • Charles J.

Liberia's Persistent Current Account Deficit: A Threat to Economic Growth and Debt Sustainability

Liberia's economy has been grappling with a persistent current account deficit over the past few years. The deficit can be attributed to a high level of imports coupled with low levels of exports, which has been putting pressure on the country's external debt and overall economic growth. According to the World Bank (2021), Liberia's current account deficit stood at 20.1% of GDP in 2020, a significant increase from 14.6% in 2019. This analysis seeks to explore the underlying factors contributing to the deficit, its potential implications on the Liberian economy, and possible policy recommendations.

The widening current account deficit is primarily driven by the high demand for imports, particularly food, fuel, and manufactured goods (Central Bank of Liberia, 2020). These imports have outpaced the growth of Liberia's exports, which mainly consist of iron ore, rubber, and palm oil. According to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD, 2021), Liberia's total imports increased by 9.1% in 2020, whereas total exports fell by 3.6% during the same period. The sluggish export growth can be attributed to a decline in global commodity prices and weak demand from Liberia's trading partners (World Bank, 2021).

The persistent current account deficit has several implications for the Liberian economy. Firstly, it poses a risk to the country's external debt sustainability. As the government needs to finance the deficit, it is increasingly reliant on external borrowing, leading to a buildup of debt. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF, 2021), Liberia's external debt-to-GDP ratio surged from 34.5% in 2019 to 45.2% in 2020.

Secondly, the deficit could potentially dampen economic growth by exerting downward pressure on the exchange rate, leading to higher inflation and reduced purchasing power for consumers (IMF, 2021). In 2020, the Liberian dollar depreciated by 9.4% against the US dollar, while annual inflation reached 18.4% (Central Bank of Liberia, 2020).

To mitigate the adverse effects of the current account deficit, the Liberian government should consider implementing a mix of policies aimed at promoting export diversification, reducing import dependency, and attracting foreign direct investment. This could include investing in the development of domestic industries, fostering regional trade partnerships, and implementing structural reforms to enhance the business environment (IMF, 2021).

Liberia's persistent current account deficit, driven by a high level of imports and low level of exports, poses significant risks to the country's external debt sustainability and economic growth. Implementing a comprehensive policy approach to address these challenges is essential to ensure long-term economic stability and development.

Liberia has been experiencing a persistent current account deficit for many years. In 2022, the deficit was 15.7% of GDP, according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF). This means that Liberia is spending more money on imports than it is earning from exports.

There are a number of factors that contribute to Liberia's current account deficit. One factor is the country's reliance on imported goods. Liberia imports a wide range of goods, including food, fuel, and manufactured goods. These imports are often more expensive than domestically produced goods, which contributes to the deficit.

Another factor that contributes to Liberia's current account deficit is the country's low level of exports. Liberia's main exports are rubber, timber, and iron ore. However, the prices of these commodities have been volatile in recent years, which has made it difficult for Liberia to earn enough foreign exchange to offset its imports.

The current account deficit has a number of negative consequences for Liberia. One consequence is that it can lead to a decline in the value of the Liberian dollar. This can make it more expensive for Liberians to import goods, which can further contribute to the deficit.

Another consequence of the current account deficit is that it can lead to an increase in external debt. Liberia has been borrowing money from foreign lenders to finance its imports. As the deficit grows, Liberia will need to borrow more money, which will increase its external debt burden.

A large external debt burden can make it difficult for a country to borrow money in the future. This can make it difficult for Liberia to finance its development projects and can slow economic growth.

The government of Liberia is aware of the problem of the current account deficit and is taking steps to address it. One step that the government is taking is to diversify the economy. The government is encouraging businesses to invest in new industries, such as tourism and agriculture. This will help to reduce Liberia's reliance on imported goods and increase the country's exports.

The government is also working to improve the efficiency of the port and customs clearance process. This will make it easier for businesses to import and export goods, which will help to reduce the deficit.

The government is also working to attract foreign investment. Foreign investment can help to boost economic growth and create jobs, which will help to reduce the deficit.

The government's efforts to address the current account deficit will take time. However, if the government is successful, it can help to improve the Liberian economy and create a more prosperous future for the country.


Central Bank of Liberia. (2020). Annual Report 2020. Retrieved from

International Monetary Fund (IMF). (2021). Liberia: Staff Report for the 2021 Article IV Consultation. Retrieved from

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). (2021). UNCTADStat. Retrieved from

World Bank. (2021). World Development Indicators. Retrieved from

International Monetary Fund (2023). Liberia: 2023 Article IV Consultation. Washington, DC.


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